Musty, Crusty, Dusty Downstairs? How to Clean Basement Walls

Basements, often out of sight, can become neglected over time. You need to know how to clean basement walls. Did you know that the state of your basement walls can impact the overall health of your home? From stubborn mold spores to puzzling efflorescence, there’s a lot to consider when cleaning these walls. This guide is here to be your go-to resource.

The Nature of Basement Walls

It’s essential to know your opponent in any battle. Concrete walls, a staple in most basements, have a porous nature. This means they’re prone to absorb moisture from the surrounding environment, making them susceptible to mold, mildew, and efflorescence. Knowing what you’re dealing with helps you tailor your cleaning approach.

What You Need to Clean Basement Walls

Before you start cleaning your basement walls, you need to gather some tools and products that will help you do the job effectively. 

General Cleaning Supplies:

  • Water
  • Bucket
  • Sponge or scrub brush
  • Towel
  • Spray bottle
  • Vacuum with an attachment hose
  • Wire brush
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE): rubber gloves, goggles, and a respirator mask

Choose ONE Cleaning Solution:*

  1. Lemon Juice Solution:
    • Lemon juice
    • Optional: Vinegar (to enhance cleaning power)
  2. Baking Soda and Salt Solution:
    • Baking soda
    • Salt
  3. Vinegar Solution:
    • Vinegar
    • Optional: Baking soda (for fizzing reaction)
  4. Mild Detergent or Dish Soap
  5. Hydrogen Peroxide Solution:
    • 3% hydrogen peroxide (and/or 10% for mold cleaning)
  6. Chlorine Bleach
  7. Trisodium Phosphate

Optional Items:

  • Fan or dehumidifier (to speed up drying and prevent mold)
  • Pressure washer (for post-cleaning rinse; gentle setting)
  • Waterproof caulk or epoxy filler (for sealing cracks)
  • Paint (suitable for basement walls)

*You can select one cleaning solution from the list based on your preference and the cleaning intensity required. Once you have the supplies, you’re ready to begin.

Prep Before You Clean Concrete Basement Walls

  • Safety First:
    • Make sure your workspace is well-ventilated, especially if you’re using strong chemicals. Open windows or doors, and consider placing a fan to circulate air.
    • Put on your personal protective equipment (PPE) – gloves, goggles, and a respirator, especially if using chemicals like TSP or bleach.
  • Inspect the Walls:
    • Look for areas of mold, efflorescence, or other prominent stains. It will help you focus your cleaning efforts.
  • Dry Brushing or Vacuuming:
    • Before introducing any liquid solutions, it’s a good idea to remove loose debris, dust, and cobwebs from the walls.
    • Use a soft-bristle brush or a vacuum cleaner with a brush attachment to gently sweep down the walls. This action will remove larger particles and debris that might scratch the surface during cleaning.

How to Clean Basement Walls: Instructions by Cleaning Solution

Lemon Juice

Lemon juice not only smells great but also acts as a natural disinfectant. Its citric acid breaks down stains and can help lighten dark spots.

To use lemon juice, mix equal parts of lemon juice and water in a bucket. Use a sponge or brush to apply the mixture to the walls and scrub away the stains. Rinse with water and dry the surface.

You can also add some vinegar to the lemon juice solution to enhance its cleaning power.

Baking Soda and Salt

Using baking soda Sodium bicarbonate and white vinegar for cleaning

Baking soda and salt are natural abrasives that can help remove dirt, grime, and mold from concrete walls. They can also help to neutralize odors.

To use this method, mix half a cup of baking soda with a quarter cup of salt in a bowl. Add enough water to make a thick paste. Apply the paste to the stained areas and let it sit for 15 minutes. Scrub with a brush or sponge and rinse with water. 


Vinegar is a mild acid that can kill up to 82% of mold species, and help remove dirt, grease, and efflorescence from concrete walls. Efflorescence is a white powdery substance that forms on concrete surfaces due to the presence of water-soluble salts. 

To use vinegar, mix equal parts of vinegar and water in a spray bottle and apply it to the affected areas. Let it sit for 10 minutes, then scrub it with a stiff nylon brush or sponge. Rinse with clean water and dry the surface. 

You can also add some baking soda to the vinegar solution to create a fizzing reaction that can loosen stubborn stains.

Liquid Dish Soap

blue dish soap and wash cloth, dawn soap hacks

Mild dish soap will clean concrete walls without any harsh chemicals that could be dangerous to you or your pets. 

Fill a bucket with warm water and add a few drops of mild detergent or dish soap. Stir well to create a sudsy solution. Dip your sponge or cloth into the bucket and wring out the excess water (You want it to be damp but not dripping.) Start from the top and work your way down, wiping the walls with the sponge or cloth in circular motions. Rinse and wring out the sponge or cloth frequently as it gets dirty. Use a clean towel or cloth to dry off the walls as much as possible.

Then turn on a fan or dehumidifier to speed up the drying process and prevent mold growth.

Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a powerful oxidizer that can remove stains and whiten the surface of basement walls. 

To use hydrogen peroxide, mix one part of 3% hydrogen peroxide with two parts of water in a spray bottle. Spray the solution on the moldy or stained areas and let it soak for 10 minutes. Scrub with a brush or sponge and rinse with water. 

A higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide (around 10%) is effective against mold. Its effervescence can penetrate deep into the porous surface, ensuring a thorough cleaning


Bleach, specifically chlorine bleach, is known for its disinfecting properties. It can kill many bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. This makes it particularly useful for basements, which are prone to mold and mildew due to their often damp conditions. 

Never use bleach full strength on walls. A common dilution is one cup of bleach to one gallon of water. This solution is usually potent enough to address surface mold and mildew. 

Using a brush or sponge, apply the diluted bleach solution to the affected areas. Let it sit for at least 10 minutes but no longer than 15 minutes, then scrub the area. After scrubbing, rinse thoroughly with water to ensure no bleach residue remains.

We just want to emphasize this more. Inhaling bleach fumes, especially in an enclosed basement, can be harmful. Always ensure excellent ventilation when using bleach. Also, never mix bleach with ammonia or acids, as this can produce toxic fumes.  If you’ve used other cleaning products, make sure they’re thoroughly rinsed off completely before applying bleach.

Trisodium Phosphate (TSP)

Trisodium phosphate (TSP) is a powerful cleaning agent and can be used for a deep clean. TSP is a strong alkaline cleaner that can remove heavy-duty dirt, grease, soot, mold, and paint from concrete walls. It can also degloss and etch the surface, making it ready for painting or sealing.

However, due to its potency, it’s vital to use it in a controlled manner. Wear gloves, goggles, and a respirator when handling TSP, as it can be harmful if swallowed or inhaled.  

To use TSP, mix one gallon of warm water with three ounces of TSP in a bucket. Use a wire brush to apply the solution to the walls and scrub vigorously. Rinse with clean water and dry the surface. 

TSP Warning: In some places, it’s being phased out due to environmental concerns (it can accelerate the growth of algae in waterways). Check local regulations or availability if you’re considering using it.

How to Prevent Basement Wall Problems

Cleaning your basement walls is not something you want to do every day. To keep them clean for longer and avoid future problems, here are some tips you can follow:

  • Ventilate your basement. Poor ventilation can cause moisture buildup and mold growth in your basement. To improve air circulation and reduce humidity levels, open windows, and doors whenever possible and use fans or dehumidifiers regularly.
  • Fix any leaks. Water leaks can damage your basement walls and cause stains and mold growth. To prevent this, inspect your pipes, faucets, drains, gutters, downspouts, and foundations for any signs of leaks and repair them as soon as possible. Remember, efflorescence is a sign of moisture problems, so ensure you address any leaks or seepages. 
  • Seal any cracks. Cracks in your basement walls can allow water and pests to enter your basement and cause problems. To seal them, use a waterproof caulk or epoxy filler that is suitable for concrete or masonry surfaces.
  • Paint your walls. Painting your basement walls can give them a fresh look and protect them from dirt and moisture. Use a paint that is designed for basement walls and has a mold-resistant or waterproof feature.

Basement Wall Cleaning Tips

  • Once all cleaning is done, you can use a pressure washer on a gentle setting to rinse the walls. This would ensure that no residues remain.
  • If you suspect you have a significant mold issue, it might be worth recommending consulting a professional, especially if you’re sensitive to mold or have respiratory issues. Mold can be harmful to health, and not all types are easily eradicated with household products.
  • Test any cleaning product on a small inconspicuous area before applying it to the entire wall.
  • Avoid using abrasive or metal tools that can scratch or damage the concrete surface.
  • Protect your skin, eyes, and lungs by wearing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).
  • Follow the manufacturer’s instructions and safety precautions when using any cleaning product.
  • Dispose of any leftover cleaning solution properly according to local regulations.


Why do I need to wear a respirator?

Mold spores and chemicals can be harmful when inhaled. A respirator ensures you’re protected during the cleaning process.

Can I use store-bought cleaners?

Yes. While store-bought cleaners can be effective, natural remedies often provide similar results without introducing unnecessary chemicals into your home environment.

How often should I clean my basement walls?

It depends on your basement’s moisture levels. If it’s dry, a bi-annual check is sufficient. However, damp basements might require more frequent cleanings. It’s also a good idea to base it on visible dirt, dust, mold, or efflorescence. For some homes, even if the basement is dry, dust accumulation might necessitate a cleaning.


Cleaning your basement walls is not a difficult task if you follow the steps and tips in this guide. By using the right tools and products, you can remove any dirt, stains, and mold from your walls and make them look new again. You can also prevent future problems by improving ventilation, fixing leaks, sealing cracks, and painting your walls.

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